China and the United States lavished funds on similar research. The death toll would be about 140,000, including 44,000 who had sought refuge near Tokyos Sumida River in the first few hours, only to be immolated by a freak pillar of fire known as a dragon twist. The temblor destroyed two of Japans largest cities and traumatized the nation; it also whipped up nationalist and racist passions. The fire spread with the help of strong winds generated by a typhoon that was in northern Japan at the time. Lawlessness drove the government to declare martial law, but civilian authorities inability to deal with the disaster contributed ti an eventual military takeover. Red hot embers were scattered by the first quake. ardabil informasi bersama fuad dikongsi Martial law was declared for a week. Evan Osnos wrote in The New Yorker: Because the quake struck at midday, countless Japanese were at their cooking fires, and most of the physical damage and the casualties came from the conflagrations that swept the cities. According to one police report, fires had broken out in 83 locations by 12:15. Xenophobic newspapers published accusations that American relief teams were trying to humiliate the Japanese, putting a quick end to the era of good feeling. Shimpei Goto who served as foreign minister and was the first president of the South Manchuria Railway Co. and mayor of Tokyo shortly before the earthquake occurred is credited with leading the reconstruction of the city by moving swiftly with a plan. (Japan had occupied Korea in 1905, annexed it five years later and ruled the territory with an iron grip.) The slaughter began after the Interior Ministry cabled local branches that ethnic Koreans were committing acts of arson and ordered them rounded up. Fifteen minutes later, they had spread to 136. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit. Otis Manchester Poole, a 43-year-old American manager of a trading firm, stepped out of his largely still-intact office near the Bund to face an indelible scene. Vast portions of the hills facing the ocean had slid into the sea.. Water was in short supply as water mains were ruptured. Though they may dispute its effects, historians agree that the destruction of two great population centers gave voice to those in Japan who believed that the embrace of Western decadence had invited divine retribution. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Fuel, food and water were hard to come by weeks after the earthquake, and the Japanese government acknowledged that it had been ill-prepared for a calamity on this scale. Also, reconstruction costs in principle would be the responsibility of the government, and long-term government bonds would be issued at home and abroad to secure funds. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Daily Yomiuri, Times of London, Japan National Tourist Organization (JNTO), National Geographic, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, Lonely Planet Guides, Comptons Encyclopedia and various books and other publications. After the quake many changes were made and many safety measures were implemented. LARGE EARTHQUAKES IN JAPAN factsanddetails.com ; The entity had the same status as a ministry. Then, as in Yokohama, fires spread, fueled by flimsy wooden houses and fanned by high winds. Meanwhile, a wall of water surged from the fault zone toward the coast of Honshu. Or, as philosopher and social critic Fukasaku Yasubumi declared at the time: God cracked down a great hammer on the Japanese nation. "The pillars of the house made groaning sounds and began to crack.

ALL TRAFFIC STOPPEDand dispatched it to an RCA receiving station in Hawaii. May 14, 2011], Meanwhile, Goto had plots of land totaling about 3,600 hectares an area larger than that devastated by the fires in the wake of the quake which he designated as part of a large-scale urban redevelopment. Of the 44,000 people who had gathered there, only 300 survived. May 14, 2011]. Mass hysteria broke out. One survivor later said, "We ran through cyclones of intense heat toward a school under construction. The 9.0 earthquake that struck the northeast coast of Honshu this past March is not likely to have such an impact on Japans history. Scientists at Japanese universities received tens of millions of yen to support projects ranging from constructing logarithmic formulas based on past seismic upheavals, to investigating whether catfish and eels displayed unusual movements such as tail-twitching or whisker-wiggling in advance of earthquakes. U.S. naval vessels set sail from China on the evening of September 2, and within a week, dozens of warships packed with relief supplies rice, canned roast beef, reed mats, gasoline filled Yokohama Harbor. Capt. Joshua Hammer As the evening of the quake approached, Kinney observed, Yokohama, the city of almost half a million souls, had become a vast plain of fire, of red, devouring sheets of flame which played and flickered. The board was downgraded to bureau status after the Yamamoto Cabinet resigned en masse in January 1924. Within hours of the catastrophe, rumors spread that Korean immigrants were poisoning wells and using the breakdown of authority to plot the overthrow of the Japanese government. The earthquake also exposed the darker side of humanity. [Source: Joshua Hammer, Smithsonian magazine, May 2011]. In the infamous "Kamoedo Incident, army officers butchered10 labor activists with swords. I'd thought I was hot but even the soles of their feet were charred." Within hours of the catastrophe, rumors spread that Korean immigrants were poisoning wells and using the breakdown of authority to plot the overthrow of the Japanese government. [Source: Evan Osnos, The New Yorker, March 28, 2011]. If you are the copyright owner and would like this content removed from factsanddetails.com, please contact me. Three hundred people died in Kamakura, the ancient capital, when a 20-foot-high wave washed over the town.

All told, 45 percent of Tokyo burned before the last embers of the inferno died out on September 3. On that occasion, the Tokyo metropolitan Hibiya Public Hall was built in Chiyoda Ward, Tokyo, as a venue for citizens to discuss politics. The smiles vanished, remembered Ellis M. Zacharias, then a young U.S. naval officer, who was standing on the pier when the earthquake hit, and for an appreciable instant everyone stood transfixed by the sound of unearthly thunder. Moments later, a tremendous jolt knocked Zacharias off his feet, and the pier collapsed, spilling cars and people into the water.

People flocked to parks and other open spaces for safety, but many of them died by the choking fumes from all the fires. A wireless operator in the northern Japanese town of Iwaki functioned as the sole link to the outside world for days, sending fragmentary eyewitness accounts to a relay station in Hawaii which in turn, passed them on to San Francisco. Emperor Hirohito's wedding was postponed a year. On September 2, the day after the quake, Prime Minister Gombei Yamamoto launched his cabinet and appointed Goto to the post of interior minister. Joshua Hammer wrote in the New York Times, The relief effort, led by the United States, was fast and efficient, and ended up saving thousands from near certain death or prolonged misery. Privacy Statement Here and there a remnant of a building, a few shattered walls, stood up like rocks above the expanse of flame, unrecognizable.It was as if the very earth were now burning. People worked together to cool down the wooden boats, which were cracking because of the intense heat, by dumping water on them. Twenty expatriate regulars at the Yokohama United Club, the citys most popular watering hole, died when the concrete building pancaked. Thomas Ryan, a 22-year-old U.S. naval ensign, freed a woman trapped inside the Grand Hotel in Yokohama, then carried the victim who had suffered two broken legs to safety, seconds ahead of a fire that engulfed the ruins. Soon, the entire city was ablaze. Tens of thousands of working-class Japanese found refuge in an empty patch of ground near the river. Soon, the entire city was ablaze. Predicting earthquakes, however, remains a hit-or-miss proposition, often a matter of luck. Cookie Settings, Rue des Archives / The Granger Collection, New York, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu: And Their Race to Save the World's Most Precious Manuscripts, The Falcon Thief: A True Tale of Adventure, Treachery, and the Hunt for the Perfect Bird, The Unmistakable Black Roots of 'Sesame Street', The DNA of Hundreds of Insect Species Is in Your Tea, How to Deal With Work Stress and Recover From Burnout, Scientists Just Sent Two Batches of Stem Cells Into Space, Cavers Discover 200-Year Old Mine, Untouched Since the Moment It Was Abandoned. Twenty expatriate regulars at the Yokohama United Club, the citys most popular watering hole, died when the concrete building pancaked. Three minutes later there was a 7.3 quakes. All told, 145,000 people died, including about 150 Americans, and some 40,000 mostly poor Japanese who were incinerated by a dragon twist, a freak tornado of fire that swept over a makeshift camp ground near Tokyos Sumida River. It had complete authority over reconstruction. A series of towering waves swept away thousands of people. Yonemuras bulletins helped to galvanize an international relief effort, led by the United States, that saved thousands from near-certain death or prolonged misery. Joshua Hammer wrote in Smithsonian magazine: The first shock hit at 11:58 a.m., emanating from a seismic fault six miles beneath the floor of Sagami Bay, 30 miles south of Tokyo.

But I had none to give her. The army declared martial law and began a steady erosion of democracy, culminating in its expansion into China and the outbreak of World War II. Down at the docks of Yokohama, Japans biggest port and its gateway to the West, hundreds of well-wishers were seeing off the Empress of Australia, a 615-foot luxury steamship bound for Vancouver. The cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, and surrounding towns and villages, have been largely if not completely destroyed by earthquake, fire and flood, with a resultant appalling loss of life and destitution and distress, requiring measures of urgent relief. The American Red Cross, of which Coolidge was the titular head, initiated a national relief drive, raising $12 million for victims. Although the shock waves had weakened by the time they reached through the Kanto region to Tokyo, 17 miles north of Yokohama, many poorer neighborhoods built on unstable ground east of the Sumida River collapsed in seconds. The flames closed in from all directions, and then, at 4 p.m., a 300-foot-tall fire tornado blazed across the area. It presented exactly the aspect of a gigantic Christmas pudding over which the spirits were blazing, devouring nothing. The first shock hit at 11:58 a.m., emanating from a seismic fault six miles beneath the floor of Sagami Bay, 30 miles south of Tokyo. A total of 142,907 people were killed or reported missing after the quake and subsequent fires, including 5,000 schoolchildren. It moved Tokyo into the ranks of world metropolises. [Source: Joshua Hammer, Smithsonian magazine, May 2011], University of Melbourne historian J. Charles Schencking sees the rebuilding of Tokyo as a metaphor for something larger. However, the government could secure only about 700 million yen given the fiscal resources available at the time.

Of the 44,000 people who had gathered there, only 300 survived. Hours after the earthquake, Yonemura picked up a faint signal from a naval station near Yokohama, relaying word of the catastrophe. Soon after his appointment as interior minister was confirmed at an attestation ceremony by the Emperor, Goto said, "We need 3 billion yen to reconstruct." 2022 Smithsonian Magazine Advertising Notice Because of resistance from the biggest opposition party, Seiyukai, backed by the landowner class, and the weakness of Yamamoto's coalition government, reconstruction costs eventually were cut to about 460 million yen, forcing the Cabinet to reduce the width of main roads and scrap plans for some thoroughfares. The earthquake, he has written, fostered a culture of catastrophe defined by political and ideological opportunism, contestation and resilience, as well as a culture of reconstruction in which elites sought to not only rebuild Tokyo, but also reconstruct the Japanese nation and its people.. One of the few buildings to survive the earthquake was Imperial Hotel designed by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. One survivor said, "It was like a scene from hell. Riots broke out in central Tokyo. In Yokohama 90.2 percent of buildings were destroyed by fire. Later in the day hundreds of aftershocks were recorded, 19 of them with magnitudes of 5 or higher. kanto Then there was Taki Yonemura, chief engineer of the government wireless station in Iwaki, a small town 152 miles northeast of Tokyo. The date was September 1, 1923, and the event was the Great Kanto Earthquake, at the time considered the worst natural disaster ever to strike quake-prone Japan. Japanese expressed resentment toward Western rescuers; demagogues in the United States charged that the Japanese had been ungrateful for the outpouring of help they received. ; Lisbon in 1755; New Madrid Mo., in 1811; San Francisco in 1906; Tokyo in 1923; Peru in 1970; and Nicaragua in 1972. Most of the deaths and damage are attributed to fires started by overturned cooking fires in traditional wood and rice paper homes. Such material is made available in an effort to advance understanding of country or topic discussed in the article. The radio man flashed the news across the sea at the speed of sunlight, reported the New York Times, to tell of tremendous casualties, buildings leveled by fire, towns swept by tidal wavesdisorder by rioters, raging fire and wrecked bridges. [Source: Joshua Hammer, Smithsonian magazine, May 2011]. Then came fires, fanned by winds and fueled by flimsy wooden houses, reducing much of what remained to ashesThe quake leveled the great port city of Yokohama home to a population of 5,000 expatriates and burned down more than sixty percent of Tokyo. American naval vessels set sail from China on the evening of Sept. 2, and within a week, dozens of warships packed with relief supplies rice, tents, reed mats, canned roast beef filled Yokohama harbor. [Source: Joshua Hammer, New York Times ]. In Shizuoka, the entire village of Nebukawa was wiped out by a landslide. This first quake, measuring 7.9 on the Richter scale, increased in intensity for 12 second and caused violent shaking that lasted for five seconds. The book describes earthquakes in the Dead Sea, Britain, Sparta in 464 B.C. Nobel nominee Junicho Tanizaki, who spent two years in Yokohama writing screenplays, marveled at a riot of loud Western colors and smellsthe odor of cigars, the aroma of chocolate, the fragrance of flowers, the scent of perfume.. People fled toward the Sumida River, drowning by the hundreds when bridges collapsed. For the next three days, Yonemura sent a stream of reports that alerted the world to the unfolding tragedy. The main sections of the board were the planning, construction and land-readjustment departments.

Questions or comments, e-mail ajhays98@yahoo.com, Nature, Science, Animals - Land, Weather, Volcanoes and Earthquakes, Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Jan Kozak Collection. According to one police report, fires had broken out in 83 locations by 12:15. The braziers fell over and set houses and entire neighborhoods on fire. Roving bands of Japanese prowled the ruins of Yokohama and Tokyo, setting up makeshift roadblocks and massacring Koreans across the earthquake zone. 1948 turkmenistan ashgabat Even the Imperial Palace caught fire; the Emperor and Empress were in Nikko at the time. But the reconstruction plan is said to have led to the basic structure of today's Tokyo., Goto called the disaster the perfect opportunity to construct an ideal capital, aspired to build a city resistant to a major disaster, the Yomiuri Shimbun reported. An overwhelming disaster has overtaken the people of the friendly nation of Japan, he declared on September 3. For the city was gone., An estimated 6,000 Koreans and a smaller number of Chinese were lynched several days after the earthquake by vigilant mobs in search of scape goats. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C.

According to one estimate only 0.9 dwellings in Tokyo were destroyed by tremors. And the quake may have emboldened right-wing forces at the very moment that the country was poised between military expansion and an embrace of Western democracy, only 18 years before Japan would enter World War II. It presented exactly the aspect of a gigantic Christmas pudding over which the spirits were blazing, devouring nothing. Efforts to put out the fires were hindered by the subsequent quakes. An earthquake! The cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, and surrounding towns and villages, have been largely if not completely destroyed by earthquake, fire, and flood, with a resultant appalling loss of life and destitution and distress, requiring measures of urgent relief.. Later that day, Goto ruled out relocation of the nation's capital, announced that 3 billion yen would be spent on reconstruction, and said the latest Western urban planning methods would be used to rebuild Tokyo. I watched flames shoot out from futons that people had slung over their backsAs hot as it was a girl tried to bury herself in the sand. Since 1960, the date has been commemorated in Japan as Disaster Prevention Day. From the waterfront promenade, known as the Bund, to the Bluff, the hillside neighborhood favored by foreign residents, Yokohama was where East met West, and liberal ideasincluding democracy, collective bargaining and womens rightstransfixed those who engaged them. Yet it also whipped up nationalist hysteria, with vigilante bands roving the lawless countryside, murdering thousands of Koreans. Traditional figures offered words of solace: Crown Prince Hirohito 88 years ago; his son, Emperor Akihito, in 2011. Winds channeled through the streets created vortexes at intersections and fiery whirlwinds developed into tornados, which incinerated everything. People were also killed by mudslides, landslides and tsunamis. Passenger trains fell off railway bridges and plunged into the sea. Before the Great Kanto Earthquake struck, Japan was full of optimism. I saw a thirty-foot sampan [boat] that had been lifted neatly on top of the roof of a prostrated house. Telegraph and telephone lines went down across Japan, and the first full newspaper account didnt appear until Sept. 4 a full three days later, Hammer wrote. Tokyo 1923 According to the Guinness Book of Records, the most destructive earthquake ever was the Kanto earthquake that struck the Tokyo and Yokohama areas at 11:58am on September 1, 1923. Schools and other organizations hold drills on disaster readiness. Yonemura tapped out a 19-word bulletin CONFLAGRATION SUBSEQUENT TO SEVERE EARTHQUAKE AT YOKOHAMA AT NOON TODAY. Such major metropolitan streets as Yasukuni-dori avenue and Harumi-dori avenue running through central Tokyo today were built as part of that post-quake reconstruction effort. There was some discussion of moving the capital from Tokyo.

The earthquake occurred hours before the hotel's official grand opening ceremony. In one vacant lot on Tokyo thousands of people gathered in hope of escaping massive post-earthquake fires, only to die when flames consumed the crowd itself. The cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, and surrounding towns and villages, have been largely if not completely destroyed by earthquake, fire and flood, with a resultant appalling loss of life and destitution and distress, requiring measures of urgent relief. The American Red Cross, of which Coolidge was the titular head, initiated a national relief drive, raising $12 million for victims. [Source: Joshua Hammer, Smithsonian magazine, May 2011. library places presentation headline locations collections features map its The three-story Grand Hotel, an elegant Victorian villa on the seafront that had played host to Rudyard Kipling, W. Somerset Maugham and William Howard Taft, collapsed, crushing hundreds of guests and employees. The three-story Grand Hotel, an elegant Victorian villa on the seafront that had played host to Rudyard Kipling, W. Somerset Maugham and William Howard Taft, collapsed, crushing hundreds of guests and employees. Right-wing extremists used the confusion as an opportunity to go after labor unionists and socialists. A 60- by 60-mile segment of the Philippine oceanic plate ruptured and thrust itself against the Eurasian continental plate, releasing a massive burst of tectonic energy. Regarded as key to the project was the construction of large-scale trunk roads, which were to be at least 30 meters wide, and a large park. One survivor recalled.

On September 6 he submitted his proposals on Tokyo's reconstruction to the cabinet, which approved it with some reservations. The Tokyo earthquake was a actually a series of quakes that lasted for about 10 minutes. Three hundred people died in Kamakura, the ancient capital, when a 20-foot-high wave washed over the town. Then came fires, roaring through the wooden houses of Yokohama and Tokyo, the capital, burning everythingand everyonein their path. This constitutes 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. WHOLE CITY ABLAZE WITH NUMEROUS CASUALTIES. A few minutes later, a 35-foot-high tsunami rolled in, sweeping away cars, houses and thousands of people, and burying entire towns in mud. Some Japanese even accused them of causing the earthquake.

The epicenter was in Sagami Bay off Yokohama. During the earthquake office buildings toppled into the streets, ships were cast adrift when their hawsers snapped, railroad tunnels collapsed, 394 trams cars overturned, offshore oil tanks exploded setting Tokyo Bay on fire and 16-foot waves tossed a commuter train and its 500 passengers into the sea. The calamity initiated a massive effort in Japan to predict earthquakes and tsunamis. The remaining 99.1 percent were destroyed by fire. ". I saw a thirty-foot sampan [boat] that had been lifted neatly on top of the roof of a prostrated house. Regular contributor Joshua Hammer is the author of Yokohama Burning, about the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. It measured 7.9 on the Richter scale and occurred when a section of the Philippine Sea plate suddenly shifted under the Kanto Plains. Joshua Hammer wrote in Smithsonian magazine: Although the shock waves had weakened by the time they reached through the Kanto region to Tokyo, 17 miles north of Yokohama, many poorer neighborhoods built on unstable ground east of the Sumida River collapsed in seconds. The flames closed in from all directions, and then, at 4 p.m., a 300-foot-tall fire tornado blazed across the area. This single location accounted for about 40 percent of the deaths. The 1923 quake should also serve a reminder of the limitations of science, Hammer wrote. The Great Kanto Earthquake obliterated all of that in a single afternoon. Roving bands of Japanese prowled the ruins of Yokohama and Tokyo, setting up makeshift roadblocks and massacring Koreans across the earthquake zone. See Separate Articles:EARTHQUAKES AND JAPAN factsanddetails.com ; From Washington, President Calvin Coolidge took the lead in rallying the United States. Joshua Hammer is a contributing writer to Smithsonian magazine and the author of several books, including The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu: And Their Race to Save the World's Most Precious Manuscripts and The Falcon Thief: A True Tale of Adventure, Treachery, and the Hunt for the Perfect Bird. It moved Tokyo into the ranks of world metropolises., University of Melbourne historian J. Charles Schencking sees the rebuilding of Tokyo as a metaphor for something larger. Then came fires, roaring through the wooden houses of Yokohama and Tokyo, the capital, burning everything and everyone in their path. The wall clock stopped, and the electric fan went flying.". Rumors began spreading that Koreans were looting and poisoning the water supply. About 600 handpicked bureaucrats were sent to the board from the Interior, Railways and other ministries., On November 24 only two months after its establishment, the board drew up a seven-year reconstruction plan that included arterial roads and parks. Fifteen minutes later, they had spread to 136. Grim relics from these fires on display in an earthquake museum in Tokyo include a half-melted teapot in which someone's hidden nest egg of coins has been fused into a solid mass, and a box of sweets that were turned to charcoal by the intense heat. [Source: Yomiuri Shimbun. MAJOR EARTHQUAKES IN JAPAN IN THE 2000s factsanddetails.com, 1923 Tokyo Earthquake Good Websites and Sources: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Information Center earthquake.usgs.gov ; Wikipedia article on Earthquakes Wikipedia ; Earthquake severity pubs.usgs.gov ; Collection of Images from Historic Earthquakes Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Jan Kozak Collection ; World Earthquake Map iris.edu/seismon Most Recent Earthquakes earthquake.usgs.gov ; Earthquake Pamphlet pubs.usgs.gov ; USGS Earthquakes for Kids earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids ; Earthquake Preparedness and Safety Surviving an Earthquake edu4hazards.org ; Earthquake Preparedness Guide earthquakepreparednessguide.com ; Earthquake Safety Site earthquakecountry.info, Earthquake Information for Japan Earthquake Information from Japan Meteorological Agency jma.go.jp/en/quake ; F-Net Broadband Seismography Network fnet.bosai.go.jp ; Wikipedia List of Earthquakes in Japan Wikipedia ; Major Earthquakes in Japan in the 20th Century drgeorgepc.com ; Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Prevention: Disaster Prevention Research Institute, University of Kyoto dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/web ; Japan Association of Earthquake Engineering jaee.gr.jp/english ; Earthquake Preparedness in Japan Earthquake Preparedness Survey whatjapanthinks.com ; Earthquake Research in Japan: Headquarters of Earthquake Research Promotion jishin.go.jp ; Institute of Geology and Geoinformation unit.aist.go.jp Research Center for Earthquake Prediction, University of Kyoto rcep.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp ; Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp ; 1923 Tokyo Earthquake: Great Kanto earthquake of 1923 dl.lib.brown.edu/kanto ; 1923 Tokyo Earthquake Photo Gallery japan-guide.com.

At the time of the quake Tokyo had a population of 2 million and the area struck by the quake had 12 million. Then there was Taki Yonemura, chief engineer of the government wireless station in Iwaki, a small town 152 miles northeast of Tokyo. Cookie Policy According to survivors, the initial quaking lasted for about 14 seconds long enough to bring down nearly every building on Yokohamas watery, unstable ground. Over everything had settled a thick white dust, he remembered years later, and through the yellow fog of dust, still in the air, a copper-coloured sun shone upon this silent havoc in sickly reality. Fanned by high winds, fires from overturned cookstoves and ruptured gas mains spread. The Tokyo earthquake occurred just as many people were preparing their lunchtime meals on charcoal or coal stoves. Otis Manchester Poole, a 43-year-old American manager of a trading firm, stepped out of his largely still-intact office near the Bund to face an indelible scene.

People fled toward the Sumida River, drowning by the hundreds when bridges collapsed. The radio man flashed the news across the sea at the speed of sunlight, reported the New York Times, to tell of tremendous casualties, buildings leveled by fire, towns swept by tidal wavesdisorder by rioters, raging fire and wrecked bridges..

Joshua Hammer wrote in Smithsonian magazine: My own view is that by reducing the expatriate European community in Yokohama and putting an end to a period of optimism symbolized by that city, the Kanto earthquake accelerated Japans drift toward militarism and war. When the fires subsided, I walked around and saw corpses everywhere. Tens of thousands of working-class Japanese found refuge in an empty patch of ground near the river. Japanese mobs hunted down Koreans and beat them to death. Samuel Robinson, the Canadian skipper of the Empress of Australia, took hundreds of refugees aboard, organized a fire brigade that kept the ship from being incinerated by advancing flames, then steered the crippled vessel to safety in the outer harbor. Military police attacked "enemies of the state." The smiles vanished, remembered Ellis M. Zacharias, then a young U.S. naval officer, who was standing on the pier when the earthquake hit, and for an appreciable instant everyone stood transfixed by the sound of unearthly thunder. Moments later, a tremendous jolt knocked Zacharias off his feet, and the pier collapsed, spilling cars and people into the water.

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