The way in which to measure and define consolidation, therefore, is debated by scholars in the field. Presidential or Parliamentary Democracy: Does It Make a Difference? in Linz, J. and Valenzuela, A. eds. For the last two decades, scholars within the dominant, largely Western, approaches to democratic consolidation have considered the consolidation of democracy in sub-Saharan Africa to be stymied, if not impossible. On the other hand, Huntington 1993 not only demarcates the end of a transition using the two-turnover test but also posits that economic prosperity, a peaceful transition, and previous experience with democracy are all preconditions for successful consolidation. Democracy Challenged: the rise of semi-authoritarianism. A democracy becomes consolidatedthat is, it is expected to endurewhen political actors accept the legitimacy of democracy and no actor seeks to act outside democratic institutions for both normative and self-interested reasons. The Third Wave: democratisation in the late twentieth century. Electoral and administrative reforms adopted during Japans lost decades have transformed Japanese politics and decisionmaking. This is to say, the longevity of a regime may not translate into the quality of a democracy. Gellar, S. 2005. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 22.11.2016. Golder. Does Public Support Help Democracy Survive? American Journal of Political Science, 64 (1):118134. Below are a few of the theories that have been proposed regarding the likelihood of a democracy of becoming consolidated.Importantly, the below list of theories is not a complete one, there are dozens of theories about what circumstances or conditions best lend to a consolidated democracy. Mainwaring, S. 1999. Ronald Francisco (2000) argues that regime change is, at its core, a political event, meaning that the changes which occur center around political issues. Essentially Contested Concepts, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, New Series, 56: 167198. Introduction: the growth of critical citizens? Some have argued that states need a free market system in order to experience democratic consolidation, and further, that economic growth is a catalyst for consolidation. The second test to consider would be the longevity test.

Paradoxically, however, long-lasting democracies do not seem to be immune from a degradation in the quality of their democracy. The LibreTexts libraries arePowered by NICE CXone Expertand are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot.

Gallop International. Huntington and Linz put forward options for the circumstances that are most conductive and least conducive to democratic consolidation. Burma Votes for Change: Clashing Attitudes toward Democracy. Persson A. and M. Sjostedt. In this vein, if the previous regime had any democratic characteristics, whether these were partially free or fair elections. Theres also the possibility of an authoritarian regime initiating a change to democracy, which may or may not lead to long term democratic processes. The Politics of Rating Freedom: Ideological Affinity, Private Authority, and the Freedom in the World Ratings. Perspectives on Politics, 15 (3):711731. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Health-Care Politics in the United States. Studies on Taiwans Democracy and Democratisation, International Journal of Taiwan Studies, 1: 141160. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. 2001. What Is Democratic Consolidation? Journal of Democracy 9.2 (1998): 91107. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on How threats during formative moments of state development affect institutional quality today. The Politics of Rating Freedom: Ideological Affinity, Private Authority, and the Freedom in the World Ratings. Better Regime Cutoffs for Continuous Democracy Measures, V-Dem Working Paper, 25.

Transitions of regimes from non-democratic, to democratic, to consolidated democracies are of major interest for scholars. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Democracies. Historically, there have been a number of political science articles which argued along the lines that sociologist Max Weber did, namely, arguing that countries which were primarily Protestant had better opportunity to democratize than, for instance, Catholic states. At the same time, this test is not without its flaws. Political Parties and Electoral Politics of Japan. The peaceful transition of power is critical in any democracy, so in a way, this test makes sense. Maybe elections can be held over time, but the continued elections simply benefit one party. What if a country has a dominant party system wherein the same political party seems to be elected to power over and over again? Diamond, L. and M. Plattner (eds). Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. 2001. Politics of the Philippines: From Rizal to Duterte, Postcolonialism and International Relations, Preferential Trade Agreements, Politics of. Japan is no longer the economic laggard among industrialized countries, with GDP growth per capita over the past four years on par with other Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries. To this end, Beethem wrote: A 'state' which is incapable of enforcing any effective legal or administrative order across its territory is one in which the ideas of democratic citizenship and popular accountability can have little meaning. (Beethem, 1994 pg. Gunther, Richard, P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, and Hans-Jrgen Puhle. Linz, J. Satisfaction with Democracy in East Asia, Asian Journal of Political Science, 23 (3):243259. Although some authors are comfortable identifying a single endpoint of consolidation, others urge scholars and students to be wary of claims about what consolidation must include to be considered complete. In their important work, Linz and Stepan 1996 popularize the phrase the only game in town to describe democratic consolidation and outline how the history of a specific forms of authoritarianism might pose unique problems for consolidation. J. and N. van de Walle. Recognize modern theories of democratic consolidation. Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. He supports this conclusion with evidence of crisis management in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mainwaring, S. and T.R. In the case of Japan, the main driver of the growing socio-economic gap is the rigid labor market incentivizing non-regular employment for a larger segment of the workforce. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bargsted, M., J.C. Castilla and N.M. Somma. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bunce, V. 2003. In this test, if a country has been able to hold free and fair elections for an extended period of time, perhaps over two decades, then perhaps the democracy is consolidated.

2008. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Electoral Institutions and Womens Representation, Electoral Reform and Voting in the United States. Magalhaes, P. 2014. Schedler, Andreas. www.Afrobarometer.org, accessed 10.6.2018. Overall, if a state is willing/able to promote a free market with fair competition, it loosens its grasp on an institution which it may have the power to control, but chooses not to. 1996a.


Consolidation requires the existence of a functional state and presence of five reinforcing arenas: a free civil society, an autonomous political society, the rule of law, a bureaucracy, and an economic society in which institutions and regulations mediate the relationship between the market and the state. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. Many scholars assert that democratic consolidation occurs when the regime transition to democracy has ended, and further, that the qualities that led to the regime transition may not be the same qualities required to make a democracy endure. Later, this theory can sometimes be used to make it sound like certain religions are simply incapable of democratization, and this theory does not have solid grounding or support. Osabu-Kle, D. 2000. Koelble, T. and E. Lipuma. Time is an especially important component of many empirical works that seek to explain regime endurance. Alexander, Gerard. As defined in Chapter Three, a regime transition occurs when a formal government changes to a different government leadership, structure or system. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Support for Democracy in Africa: Intrinsic or Instrumental? British Journal of Political Science, 31 (3):447474. Boese, V. 2019. Electoral Volatility in the New Democracies of Latin Ameri Emotion and Racial Attitudes in Contemporary American Poli Environmental Politics among Advanced Industrial Democraci Failed and Weak States in Theory and Practice, Framing Effects in Political Communication, Gender and Electoral Politics in the United States, Genetic Underpinnings of Political Attitudes and Behaviors, Globalization, Health Crises, and Health Care, Governmental Responses to Political Corruption. Friedman, S. 2011. The regime type that existed prior to the democracy will affect whether a country can experience a consolidated democracy. Overall, new theories of democratic consolidation have emerged over the last few decades, and there is not yet consensus among scholars about what conditions and theories tend to have the greatest credence.

1997. The Decline of Political Trust in Spain and Portugal: Economic Performance or Political Responsiveness, American Behavioral Scientist, 58 (12):15421567. How People View Democracy. Linz, J. Terms and Conditions |Privacy Statement | Cookie Settings |Accessibility | Legal Notice. Kitschelt, H., Z. Mansfeldova, R. Markowski and G. Toka. Schmitter and Karl 1991 echoes this view and further stresses that consolidated democracies will not be able, nor should be expected, to solve all sociopolitical problems.

New York: Routledge. Linz J. and A. Stepan. Historiography of Twentieth-Century American Conservatism, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of, Immigrant Incorporation in Western Europe, Immigration Politics and Policy in the United States. Rethinking Party Systems in the Third Wave of Democratization: the case of Brazil. But income inequality has also risen to levels comparable to its OECD peers. Democracy in Senegal: Tocquevillian analytics in Africa. The reasoning here was that Protestants, according to Weber, were more accepting of individual responsibility, were focused on productive work, and were non-conformists. Presidential Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspectiv Presidential Persuasion and Public Opinion, Public Opinion in Europe toward the European Union, Public Opinion in New Democracies and Developing Nations. Kasuya, Y. and K. Mori. Instead, he suggests that if consolidation is determined by whether a democracy will endure, then typologies of polyarchy must include informally institutionalized democraciesthose in which actors act for particularistic rather than universalistic reasons.

Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: Evaluating Alternative Indices. Comparative Political Studies 35.1 (2002): 534. A Systems Analysis of Political Life. 2013. www.gallop-international.com, accessed 19.4.2019. The most important result of regime transitions for comparativists include the new constellation of rules, institutions, and authority that are established or develop(ed) over time.
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