[25] A large part of Ivanov's forces and especially the Drama Brigade and the Seres Brigade were composed of completely untrained local recruits.[26]. The Romanian armies halted before Sofia. This is a community maintained wiki. [35] On 20 July, via Saint Petersburg, the Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pai invited a Bulgarian delegation to treat with the allies directly at Ni in Serbia. I've got a lot of puppet divisions as well (more than a whole army) rest is neutral extensive conscription manpower. It is known that there were no demobilized men. The offensive was stopped by the Bulgarians on the eastern side of the pass and fighting ground to a stalemate. Bulgarian sources give a total of 6,971 casualties, over 6,000 prisoners and more than 130 artillery pieces captured by the Greeks, who suffered 8,700 casualties. The 1st Army was stationed at the eastern (Midia) end of the line. [24] All modern historians agree that Ivanov underestimated the number of his soldiers but the Greek army still had a numerical superiority. Although Russia tried to intervene throughout August to prevent Edirne from becoming Turkish again, Toshev told the Ottomans at Constantinople that "[t]he Russians consider Constantinople their natural inheritance. This was highly unpopular with the local Greek population, who, after a revolt, managed to acquire local autonomy under the terms of the Protocol of Corfu.[50]. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. Indeed, just puppet them for the time being and build up thier lands as well and lend lease them equipment to increase the meter to annex them ^^ you will get your Equip. Industrial sub-branch of the Romanian national focus tree.Clicking on a national focus icon leads to the appropriate table row. [10] The Ottoman invasion, more than the Romanian, incited panic among the peasantry, many of whom fled to the mountains. on Paradox technology, Legal "[43] Although Austria-Hungary and Russia supported Bulgaria, the influential alliance of Germanywhose Kaiser Wilhelm II was brother-in-law to the Greek kingand France secured Kavala for Greece. Foreign aviation technology is superior to ours, and we should look at obtaining licenses so that we may produce airplanes with their innovations, ourselves. [35], When the delegations met in Bucharest on 30 July, the Serbs were led by Pai, the Montenegrins by Vukoti, the Greeks by Venizelos, the Romanians by Titu Maiorescu and the Bulgarians by Finance Minister Dimitur Tonchev. Its peacetime strength was 6,149 officers and 94,170 men, and it was well equipped by Balkan standards, possessing 126 field batteries, fifteen howitzer batteries and three mountain batteries, mostly made by Krupp. When the Carnegie Commission, composed of an international team of experts, selected for their impartiality, arrived in the Balkans, they received virtually no assistance from Belgrade.[49]. No provisions were made in case of a (officially declared) Romanian intervention or an Ottoman counterattack, strangely assuming that Russia would assure that no attack would come from those directions,[19] even though on 9 June Russia had angrily repudiated its Bulgarian alliance and shifted its diplomacy towards Romania (Russia already had named Romania's King Carol an honorary Russian Field Marshal, as a clear warning in shifting its policy towards Sofia in December 1912). T. Werner Laurie LTD, p. 336. The Bulgarian rear was entirely exposed, no resistance had been offered, the capital was open to the invader and the northwestern corner of the country was cut off and surrounded.

King Constantine, seeing that the Bulgarian Army at his front had already been defeated, ordered the Greek Army to march further into Bulgarian territory and take the capital city of Sofia. Serbia almost doubled her territory enlarging her population from 2.9 to 4.5 million. The nine-division-strong Greek Army had a total of 176 guns and the ten division-strong Serbian Army, 230.

We must abandon our principles and forge relations with whoever it would be more practical to do so with. The freedom of association, assembly and the press guaranteed under the Serbian constitution of 1903 were not introduced into the new territories. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Liberation of Serbia, Albania and Montenegro (1918), Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, June 1941 uprising in eastern Herzegovina, NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina, AlbanianYugoslav border incident (December 1998), AlbaniaYugoslav border incident (April 1999), April 23, 1998 AlbanianYugoslav border ambush, December 14, 1998, AlbanianYugoslav border ambush, July 18, 1998 AlbanianYugoslav border clashes, Independence and annexation of Northern Dobruja, Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia, Soviet occupation of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and the Hertsa region, Population exchange between Bulgaria and Romania, Recovery attempt of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina and Hertsa, Day of the Union of Bessarabia with Romania, Centenary of the Great Union Anniversary Medal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Balkan_War&oldid=1089783247, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2012, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012, Articles containing Romanian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, 140 artillery pieces captured or destroyed, This page was last edited on 25 May 2022, at 16:22. , . New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Both sides made competing declarations: Savov that "Bulgaria, who defeated the Turks on all fronts, cannot end this glorious campaign with the signing of an agreement which retains none of the battlefields on which so much Bulgarian blood has been shed," and Mahmud Pasha that "[w]hat we have taken is ours. Although the Bulgarian Army succeeded in capturing Edirne, Tsar Ferdinand's ambition in crowning himself Emperor in Constantinople proved also unrealistic when the Bulgarian Army failed to capture the city in the battle of atalca. That caused Russia to cancel the arbitration initiative and to angrily repudiate its 1902 treaty of alliance with Bulgaria. Romania gets a unique national focus tree as part of the Death or Dishonor expansion. [17] Russia's Foreign Minister Sazonov's exact words to Bulgaria's new Prime Minister Stoyan Danev were "Do not expect anything from us, and forget the existence of any of our agreements from 1902 until present. The bulk of the army with eight divisions and a cavalry brigade (117,861 men)[citation needed] was gathered in Macedonia, positioned in an arc covering Thessaloniki to the north and northeast of the city, while one division and independent units (24,416 men)[citation needed] were left in Epirus. [36], The Serbian front had become static. Soviet Union is faction leader Romania demands changes to the government. The aftermath brought harassment and oppression for many in the newly conquered lands. [13] In an attempt to halt the Serbo-Greek rapprochement, Bulgarian Prime Minister Geshov signed a protocol with Greece on 21 May agreeing on a permanent demarcation between their respective forces, effectively accepting Greek control over southern Macedonia. [35] On 18 July, the Serbian 3rd army attacked, closing in on Bulgarian positions. Edirne was abandoned on 19 July, but when the Ottomans did not occupy it immediately the Bulgarians re-occupied it the next day (20 July). Both theSoviet Union andGermany will soon demand territories from Romania. How do you get that much Manpower (120 divisions >1M men)? On 22 July, Tsar Ferdinand sent a message to King Carol via the Italian ambassador in Bucharest. [35] If the Serbs had broken through the Bulgarian defences, they might have doomed the 2nd Bulgarian Army and driven out the Bulgarians entirely out of Macedonia. [46] No treaty between Montenegro and the Ottoman Empire was ever signed. Constantine wanted a decisive victory despite objections by his Prime Minister, Eleftherios Venizelos, who realized that the Serbs, having won their territorial objectives, now adopted a passive stance and shifted the weight of carrying the rest of the war to the Greeks. Our agrarian sector has ample room for improvement. German Reich Gains Appoint Pro-Axis Government: Opinion of Romania +20, Soviet Union Gains Appoint Pro-Soviet Government: Opinion of Romania +20, United Kingdom Gains Appoint Pro-Allied Government: Opinion of Romania +20. We will establish volunteer brigades in an effort to support fledgling revolutions in other nations. Carnegie report, The Serbian Army during the Second Balkan War, Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers, p.45, (), Srpskohrvatski / , Order of battle of the Bulgarian Army in the Second Balkan War, Destruction of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913, List of places burned during the Balkan Wars, "Bulgarian troops loses during the Balkan Wars", "A novel method to combat the cholera epidemic among the Romanian Army during the Balkan War - 1913", "Epidemiile n istorie | O epidemie uitat. [citation needed] However, after three days of fighting at the sectors of Pehchevo and Mahomia, the Greek forces retained their positions. The Serbian government showed no interest in preventing further outrages or investigating those that had taken place. On 27 June Montenegro announced that it would side with Serbia in the event of a Serbian-Bulgarian war. When Romania demanded its cession after the First Balkan War, Bulgaria's foreign minister offered instead some minor border changes, which excluded Silistra, and assurances for the rights of the Kutzovlachs in Macedonia. This enabled Bulgarians to stop the Serbian offensive in Macedonia at Kalimanci on 18 July. With the outbreak of hostilities, the 8th Infantry Division (stationed in Epirus) was transferred to the front, and with the arrival of new recruits, the army's strength in the Macedonian theater increased eventually to some 145,000 men with 176 guns. [10] The entire Ottoman invasion force contained between 200,000 and 250,000 men under the command of Ahmed Izzet Pasha. [2] The Greek Headquarters also estimated the numbers of their opponents from 80,000 to 105,000 men. [33] The fighting began on 2930 June 1913, between the 4th Bulgarian Army and the 1st and 3rd Serbian armies, first along the Zletovska and then after a Bulgarian retreat, along the Bregalnica. The Bulgarian reply to the Russian invitation contained so many conditions that it amounted to an ultimatum, leading Russian diplomats to realize that the Bulgarians had already decided to go to war with Serbia.

Austro-Hungarian and Russian pressure forced Serbia to be satisfied with most of northern Macedonia, conceding only the town of tip to the Bulgarians, in Pai's words, "in honour of General Fichev", who had brought Bulgarian arms to the door of Constantinople in the first war. Opposition newspapers like Radicke Novine remarked that the 'new Serbs' had had better political rights under the Turks. [38] At 28 July, the Bulgarian army, under heavy pressure, was forced to abandon Gorna Dzhumaya. By 30 July, the Bulgarian army downscaled its attacks, having to repulse Greek counterattacks on both sides. The Treaty of London, signed on 30 May 1913, which ended the war, acknowledged the Balkan states' gains west of the EnosMidia line, drawn from Midia (Kyky) on the Black Sea coast to Enos (Enez) on the Aegean Sea coast, on an uti possidetis basis, and created an independent Albania. [2] In a diplomatic circular that said, "Romania does not intend either to subjugate the polity nor defeat the army of Bulgaria", the Romanian government endeavoured to allay international concerns about its motives and about increased bloodshed. Random owned controlled state (prioritize Muntenia (46), Moldova (79)): Random owned controlled state (prioritize Muntenia(46)): This page was last edited on 2 July 2022, at 06:44. These talks finally bore fruit in the Secret BulgarianOttoman Treaty of August 1914. Why is Helmut Weidling a romanian general?? From east to west it was followed by the 2nd Army, 3rd Army and 4th Army, which was stationed at Gelibolu. [citation needed] King Constantine I assumed command of the Greek forces, with Lt. General Viktor Dousmanis as his chief of staff. [42], On 18 July, Romania took Ferdinand and on 20 July they occupied Vratsa, 116km north of Sofia. A cavalry unit advanced on Yambol and captured it on 25 July. Naval branch of the Romanian national focus tree.Clicking on a national focus icon leads to the appropriate table row. The non-recoverable casualties during the First Balkan War were 33,000 men (14,000 killed and 19,000 died of disease).

At the peace talks in Bucharest, the Romanians, having obtained their primary objective, were a voice for moderation. "[18] Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was already angry with Bulgaria because of the latter's refusal to honor its recently signed agreement with Romania over Silistra, which had been the result of Russian arbitration. The Balkan cockpit. Bulgaria's invasion of its neighbors and their successful allied defense (Jun - Aug 1913), Constantin Iordachi, "Diplomacy and the Making of a Geopolitical Question: The Romanian-Bulgarian Conflict over Dobrudja, 18781947," in. But much more often they agree to become a puppet. A place to share content, ask questions and/or talk about the grand strategy game Hearts of Iron IV by Paradox Development Studio. The Romanian national focus tree can be divided into 7 branches: Political Branch of the Romanian national focus tree that deals with Foreign Alliances.Clicking on a national focus icon leads to the appropriate table row. On 11 July the Greeks came in contact with the Serbs and then pushed on up the Struma River. The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) The main Bulgarian attack was planned against the Serbs with their 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th Armies, while the 2nd Army was tasked with an attack towards Greek positions around Thessaloniki. Soviet Union exists, is fully independent and is not in a civil war.

In the pass of Kresna (Battle of Kresna Gorge), the Greeks were ambushed by the Bulgarian 2nd and 4th Army which had newly arrived from the Serbian front and had taken defensive positions there. [42] During the invasion, the fledgling Romanian Air Corps performed photoreconnaissance and propaganda leaflet drops. Romania enlarged her territory by 5 percent and Montenegro by 62 percent. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. [33] Internal confusions led to heavy Bulgarian losses in 13 July. Soviet Union owns and controls Balta-Tiraspol (834). This the outcome, I swiftly rushed the political tree and appointed pro-soviet government to hire the demagouge. The Greeks stopped them and by 29 June an order for general counterattack was issued. With the Romanian army closing in on Sofia, Bulgaria asked Russia to arbitrate. Since the Greek headquarters did not know where the Bulgarian attack would take place, the Bulgarians would have temporary local superiority in the area chosen for the attack. The army of the Kingdom of Serbia accounted for 348,000 men (out of which 252,000 were combatants)[2] divided into three armies with ten divisions. The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913: Prelude to the First World War. When Bulgaria called upon Serbia to honor the pre-war agreement over northern Macedonia, the Serbs, displeased at the Great Powers' requiring them to give up their gains in northern Albania, adamantly refused to evacuate any more territory. Tactical necessities during and after the First Balkan War modified this original structure: a new 10th division was formed using two brigades from the 1st and 6th divisions, and an additional three independent brigades were formed from new recruits. Valve Corporation. On 19 May/1 June 1913, two days after the signing of the Treaty of London and just 28 days before the Bulgarian attack, Greece and Serbia signed a secret defensive alliance, confirming the current demarcation line between the two occupation zones as their mutual border and concluding an alliance in case of an attack from Bulgaria or from Austria-Hungary. On 26 June the Bulgarian Army received orders to destroy the opposing Greek forces and to advance towards Thessaloniki. "[41], On the day of Romania's declaration, 80,000 men of the 5th Corps under General Ioan Culcer invaded Dobruja, occupying a front from Tutrakan to Balchik. We have at last managed to unite all Romanian speakers in our country. [42], Romania did not count any combat casualties during its brief war. Press J to jump to the feed. On 12 July, Ottoman troops garrisoning atalca and Gelibolu reached the EnosMidia line and on 20 July 1913 crossed the line and invaded Bulgaria. Bulgaria sent a three-man delegationGeneral Mihail Savov and the diplomats Andrei Toshev and Grigor Nachovichto Constantinople to negotiate a peace on 6 September. On 23 July, advanced cavalry forces had entered Vrazhdebna, a suburb just seven miles from Sofia. At the strong insistence of Austria-Hungary and Italy, both hoping to control for themselves the state and thus the Otranto Straits in Adriatic, Albania acquired officially its independence according to the terms of the Treaty of London. Romania (Romnia)is a country located in the north-eastern Balkans. United Kingdom Gets Event Romania demands Guarantee, Gains Military Modernization when dealing with United Kingdom. In spite of its start as the strongest nation in the Balkans, Romania is surrounded by existential threats from west and east alike. Civil Works/ National Defense Industry Sub-branch, PDXCON However the fact that Russia failed to protect the territorial integrity of Bulgaria made the Bulgarians uncertain of the reliability of the expected Russian arbitration of the dispute with Serbia. https://hoi4.paradoxwikis.com/index.php?title=Romanian_national_focus_tree&oldid=53613, Play [40], Romania mobilized its army on 5 July 1913, intending to seize Southern Dobruja, and declared war on Bulgaria on 10 July. If you spot a mistake then you are welcome to fix it. [36] However, after bitter fighting the Greek side managed to break through the Kresna pass and captured Simitli, at 26 July,[37] while at the night of 2728 July the Bulgarian forces were pushed north to Gorna Dzhumaya (Blagoevgrad), 76km south of Sofia. The retreat from the areas that had to be ceded to Bulgaria, together with the loss of Northern Epirus to Albania, was not well received in Greece; from the areas occupied during the war, Greece succeeded in gaining only the territories of Serres and Kavala after diplomatic support from Germany. General Ivanov, possibly to avoid any responsibility for his crushing defeat, claimed after the war that his Army consisted of only 36,000 men and that many of his units were understrength, but a detailed analysis of his units contradicted him. On 17 July the tsar appointed Vasil Radoslavov to head a pro-German and Russophobic government. Bulgaria's intention was to defeat the Serbs and Greeks and to occupy areas as large as possible before the Great Powers interfered to end the hostilities. [43] Ivan Fichev was chief of the Bulgarian general staff and a member of the delegation in Bucharest at the time. Romania is a small nation, and we must allocate appropriate numbers to reserve divisions if our army is to have any staying power in the field. Another decisive factor affecting the real strength of the divisions between the opposing armies was the distribution of artillery. On 14 November 1913 Greece and the Ottomans signed a treaty in Athens bringing to a formal end the hostilities between them. When Bulgarian delegates in London bluntly warned the Serbs that they must not expect Bulgarian support on their Adriatic claims, the Serbs angrily replied that that was a clear withdrawal from the prewar agreement of mutual understanding according to the Kriva Palanka-Adriatic line of expansion, but the Bulgarians insisted that in their view, the Vardar Macedonian part of the agreement remained active and the Serbs were still obliged to surrender the area as agreed. Even worse, the concentration on capturing Thrace and Constantinople ultimately caused the loss of the major part of Macedonia including Thessaloniki and that could not be easily accepted, leading the Bulgarian military leadership around Tsar Ferdinand to decide upon a war against its former allies. According to the Military Law of 1903, the armed forces of Bulgaria were divided in two categories: the Active Army and the National Militia. [10] The majority of Bulgarian forces occupying East Thrace had been withdrawn earlier in the year to face the Serbo-Greek attack. The political developments and military preparations for the Second Balkan War attracted an estimated 200 to 300 war correspondents from around the world.[12]. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. 2019. Hall, Richard (2000). Among the leadership it was recognized as a complete reversal of fortune. They will feel intimidated if you put your troops on there borders when the focus finishes. [28] On 28 June, the retreating Bulgarian army and irregulars burned down the major city of Serres (a predominantly Greek town surrounded by both Bulgarian -to the north and west- and Greek -to the east and south- villages[29]), and the towns of Nigrita, Doxato and Demir Hisar,[30] ostensibly as a retaliation for the burning of the Bulgarian town of Kilkis by the Greeks, which had taken place after the named battle, as well as the destruction of many Bulgarian villages in the region. The Ottoman armies did not stop at the old border, but crossed into Bulgarian territory. By 21 July, the Greek army was outnumbered by the now counterattacking Bulgarian armies, and the Bulgarian General Staff, attempting to encircle the Greeks in a Cannae-type battle was applying pressure on their flanks. I could change it up because I am communist, R5: I wanted to play as communist Romania, the past few days, and so I also tried how fast I can do the tree. Try making a fallback line and put them away from the border or near your capital. [33] The Serbs captured the whole 7th Division of the 4th Bulgarian Army, without any fight. After Bucharest, the head of the Bulgarian delegation, Tonchev, remarked that "[e]ither the Powers will change [the territorial settlement], or we ourselves will destroy it. We will rely on the domestic Romanian aeronautical industry to produce the airplanes we need. To replace these casualties Bulgaria conscripted 60,000 men between the two wars, mainly from the newly occupied areas, using 21,000 of them to form the Seres, Drama and Odrin (Edirne) independent brigades. The inhabitants of the new territories were denied voting rights, ostensibly because the cultural level was considered too low, in reality to keep the non-Serbs who made up the majority in many areas out of national politics. I prefer war and annexion of all territories, so Id like to know what I have to do, to make Bulgaria refuse to become a puppet. The developments essentially ended the Serbo-Bulgarian alliance and made a future war between the two countries inevitable. Streamlining it and improving its efficiency will free up work forces that can be employed in other sectors, such as construction and arms production. According to the Bulgarian command the Army had 7,693 officers and 492,528 soldiers in its ranks on 16 June (including the above-mentioned three brigades). When Fichev explained why Bulgaria deserved Kavala, a port on the Aegean occupied by the Greeks, Venizelos is said to have responded, "General, we are not responsible. In comparison, subtracting the actual number of casualties including wounded and adding the newly conscripted men produces a total of no less than 576,878 men. This they did, and it was later confirmed in a treaty signed at Belgrade on 7 November. On 13 July, Prime Minister Stoyan Danev resigned in the face of Russian inactivity. Every country that is in a faction with Turkey and Turkey is not faction leader Loses. The resulting agreement was a compromise between the Romanian demands for the city, two triangles at the BulgariaRomania border and the city of Balchik and the land between it and Romania and the Bulgarian refusal to accept any cession of its territory. Romania threatened to occupy Bulgarian territory by force, but a Russian proposal for arbitration prevented hostilities. The core of the Armed forces consisted of nine infantry and one cavalry division. [36] Although this boosted the Bulgarians, the situation was critical in the south, with the Greek Army. Soon thereafter, minor clashes broke out along the borders of the occupation zones with the Bulgarians against the Serbs and the Greeks. In the words of historian Richard Hall, "[t]he battlefields of eastern Thrace, where so many Bulgarian soldiers had died to win the First Balkan War, were again under Ottoman control. Resigned to losing Edirne, the Bulgarians played for Krk Kilise (Lozengrad in Bulgarian). On 8 June, he sent an identical personal message to the Kings of Bulgaria and Serbia, offering to act as arbitrator according to the provisions of the 1912 Serbo-Bulgarian treaty.

Hungary is disarmed,Yugoslavia has great internal turmoil, andBulgaria poses no threat. To meet these threats, Romania has many options available, and its main choices are joining with theSoviet Union ,Germany ,andUnited Kingdom , and/or becoming a major power through the "Balkan Dominance" path or forming the "Cordon Sanitaire" faction withCzechoslovakia andPoland . By mid-June Bulgaria became aware of the agreement between Serbia and Greece in case of a Bulgarian attack. Its main force was deployed on the Macedonian front along the Vardar river and near Skopje. However, his later dismissal put an end to the diplomatic targeting of Serbia. The Kingdom of Romania had the largest army in the Balkans, although it had not seen action since the Romanian War of Independence against the Ottomans in 1878. At the outbreak of the First Balkan War, Bulgaria mobilized a total of 599,878 men (366,209 in the Active Army; 53,927 in the supplementing units; 53,983 in the National Militia; 94,526 from the 1912 and 1913 levies; 14,204 volunteers; 14,424 in the border guards). [32], The 4th Bulgarian Army held the most important position for the conquest of Serbian Macedonia. [35] The Bulgarians dug into strong positions around the village of Kalimantsi, at the Bregalnica river in the northeastern Macedonia region. [43], Bulgaria had agreed to cede Southern Dobruja to Romania as early as 19 July. On the Bulgarian left, the Greek 7th Division captured Serres and the 1st and 6th divisions captured Lachanas. [10], In the face of the advancing Ottomans, the greatly outnumbered Bulgarian forces retreated to the pre-war border. [46] The Ottoman delegation was led by Foreign Minister Mehmed Talat Bey, assisted by future Naval Minister rksulu Mahmud Pasha and Halil Bey. Then I splitted Czechoslovakia with Hitler, without any resistance. By contrast, the Greek Army of Macedonia had also 9 divisions, but the total number of men under arms was only 118,000. The Bulgarians had 1,116, a ratio of 6:1 against the Greeks and 5:1 against the Serbian Army. The resulting enormous sacrifices during World War I and renewed defeat caused Bulgaria a national trauma and new territorial losses. The Greeks captured Dojran on 5 July but were unable to cut off the Bulgarian retreat through Struma Pass. , , Online, Online, , , . Serbia was asking for a revision of the original treaty, since it had already lost north Albania due to the Great Powers' decision to establish the state of Albania, an area that had been recognized as a Serbian territory of expansion under the prewar Serbo-Bulgarian treaty, in exchange for the Bulgarian territory of expansion in northern Macedonia. We require the brightest minds in command of our military forces, which means the war college must be expanded.

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