Jerusalem will function as teacher of the world (v. 2a) and as the disseminator of revelation (v. 2b). 13:1). 57-83. One of the events that would occur before the realization of these great promises of blessing was Israel's exile, but the burden of this pericope is also future restoration. They were saying that Micah and his fellow true prophets, such as Isaiah, should not prophesy as they were doing. 7:13; Amos 5:18; Hab. Contrast the failure of Israel's leaders in Micah's day (3:1-11) with the success of this Leader. "He [Micah] is declaring that Israel is as lacking in good men as an orchard or vineyard after the fruit has been gathered with only gleaning left.". Deut. 1:10), and "its entrances" imply the strategic areas of its territory. Reprint ed. Lets determine to live as God desiresto do justice, to love kindness, and to walk humbly with our God (Micah 6:8). Pardoning such grave sins is contrary to human behavior, but Yahweh would not retain His anger against the Israelites forever (cf. The prophet Micah identified himself by his hometown, called Moresheth Gath, which sat near the border of Philistia and Judah about twenty-five miles southwest of Jerusalem. It implies completeness and then some. Cf. 26:17-19). All rights reserved. Gaebelein, Arno C. The Annotated Bible. ", 1:3-4 The LORD was about to intervene in the affairs of His people. 2 Tim. Morashtite, Morasthite, Moresheth, Moresheth-Gath, Moresheth-gath, Moresheth Gath, Moreshite, Moresheth-gath@Mic.1.14, Moresheth@Jer.26.18, Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1979): page 439. Esth.
Before Sennacherib besieged Jerusalem in 701 B.C., he defeated 46 other towns in Judah (2 Kings 1819).. I believe that the aspect of God that Micah helps us to appreciate most is His leadership. Neither the quality of a sacrifice nor its quantity was the important issue. The above outline is based on the literary form of the book. berit), but it is clear from what he wrote that thoughts of the covenant were always in his mind. 2 vols. Wiersbe, Warren W. Get the latest blog posts from Life, Hope & Truth straight to yourinbox. God was not going to allow these sinful practices to continue. This town is also called Moresheth Gath (verse 14). However, his distinctive burden was the social injustice that marked the ruling class (2:1, 8-9; 3:11; 6:11; cf. Encyclopedia.com. 5:3 Yahweh would give the Israelites over to chastening, until Israel had ended her painful period of suffering (like a woman in labor, 4:9), and she had brought forth a child. The reason Micah did not succumb to utter pessimismin view of the terrible conditions in his dayis that he determined to trust God. 5:8).
One of the five pillars of the faith, it is frequently mentioned in the Qurn as a duty. These capital cities had become leaders in wickedness rather than in holiness. Exod. Israel will experience peace and security (v. 4), spiritual sensitivity (v. 5), regathering to the land (v. 6), strength (v. 7), and dominion (v. 1:15 The LORD would bring on the inhabitants of Mareshah ("Possessor") one who would take possession of them. Israel will finally fulfill its function as a kingdom of priests, by mediating between God and the rest of the people of the world (cf. See Chisholm, Handbook on , p. 426, for a structural analysis of this section. McGee, J. Vernon. Isa. Wellhausen detaches "Moresheth" from "Gath," rendering the passage in Micah (l.c.) Baker Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2013): Baly, Atlas of the Biblical World (1971): Baly, The Geography of the Bible (1974): page 180, HarperCollins Concise Atlas of the Bible (1991), Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (2003), Holman Illustrated Guide to Bible Geography (2020): page 82. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (1979): IVP Old Testament Bible Background Commentary (2000): McKinny, Historical Geography of the Administrative Division of Judah (2014): pages 214, 215. If so, this was evidence of not acting justly (v. 8; cf. Phil. But there was an outcry of support for him, and some of the elders used Micahs similar message as support for Jeremiah to live. Williams: Micah foretells in clear terms the invasion of Shalmaneser and Sennacherib (1:6-16) the utter destruction of Jerusalem (3:12). Robinson ("Researches," ii. He selected towns and villages near his own hometown, in Judah's Shephelah, whose names were similar to the coming devastations or to other conditions that he described. ." Isaiah focused on the throne in heaven. Old Testament Theology. They also did this to "unsuspecting" travelers who passed through their land, and to soldiers who had recently "returned from war. The future role of the Davidic dynasty, and its capital city, Jerusalem, receive greater attention in this prophecy than in the other eighth-century B.C. ", "God is not a machine but a person, and some things need to be said and done with passion. 4:20), were isolated ("lives by itself"), even though they inhabited the land that God had given them (cf. The Holy Bible: New International Version. 152, 162. 9:9), but "diviners" sought knowledge of the future through illegitimate means, and they were outlawed in Israel (cf. Remember, judgment begins with the household of God (1 Peter 4:17). However, the date of retrieval is often important. Robert B. Chisholm Jr., Handbook on the Prophets, p. 422. Isa. The first verse of the book clearly identifies him as the author: The word of the LORD that came to Micah of Moresheth (Micah 1:1). The judges (princes) were passing judgment in legal cases because they hated good and loved evil (3:1-3). Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing Co., 1961. It is a message of utter despair, but also of joyful hope and a promise of an abundant life for all of mankind. II. This triumph, while presented in apparently militaristic terminology (4:13; 5:5-6), is actually accomplished by other than physical force [cf. The book of Micah is the sixth book of the 12Minor Prophets. Bible prophecy isn't entertainment for the curious; it's encouragement for the serious.". "With many others we believe that the prophet has in mind a different siege from that of verse 9. Though he is never directly mentioned, the figure of David appears hauntingly in the tapestry of destructionnot a David standing tall in triumph, but a David bowed down by humiliation. ; J. Jeremias, in: PJB, 29 (1933), 4253; EM, 4 (1962), 741f. "Once a year orthodox Jews go to a running stream and scatter into it bits of paper and small articles, repeating while they do it these three verses (the so-called Tashlik ceremony). 5:15 Finally, the LORD promised to take vengeance angrily on the nations that have not obeyed His will (cf. His questions convey a sense of pathos: Rather than simply criticizing them, He asked how He had failed them. One writer counted 11 characteristics of the future messianic kingdom in verses 1-8. 2:6 The writer used another wordplay: False prophets were telling Micah not to prophesy, not to announce the message of coming judgment for sin. It explains the essence of spiritual realityin contrast to mere ritual worship. 7:22-26). ", "We live in a day like that. _____. He predicted His birthplace, lineage, and origin (5:2), His future reign (4:1-7; 5:4), and he referred to Him as Israel's king (2:13) and ruler (5:2). 34:6-7) because He delights to be faithful to His mercy (Heb. 110:1). 6:3, 5; Zeph. All people were to hear God's indictment against His people (v. 2). Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge, U.K.: Wm. "They practiced the world's version of the Golden Rule: 'Whoever has the gold makes the rules. The book of Micah provides one of the most significant prophecies of Jesus Christs birth in all the Old Testament, pointing some seven hundred years before Christs birth to His birthplace of Bethlehem and to His eternal nature (Micah 5:2). Zech. "Unlike some tub-thumping modern preachers of fire and damnation, Micah preaches judgment out of such love that he weeps for his audience.". 18:10). This is quite a contrast from what Micah predicted about the immediate future of Jerusalem and the temple: its destruction and abandonment (cf. 5:4 This Redeemer will arise and shepherd Yahweh's flock (Israel) in Yahweh's strength and majestyin harmony with His character (cf. The LORD was restating the curses for covenant unfaithfulness listed in the Mosaic Code. Why not make the message match the customer's pocket?". Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Kaiser, Walter C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Isa. However, "My people" seems to imply a larger group of Israelites than just the false prophets: probably the numerous wealthy oppressors among the people. ", "Year by year bands of pilgrims would make their way to Jerusalem to engage in festive worship, in the course of which they would receive instruction in the moral traditions of the covenant. They distorted their messages to get a favorable response to their messages. They did not represent God, the true Judge of His people. 7:8; 9:26; 13:5; 15:15; 24:18). These capital cities, by synecdoche, represent their respective nations and the people in them. 5:15) says that those nations which do not hearken will experience the judgment of Yahweh's anger and wrath. Matt. And then I will declare to them, I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness! (Matthew 7:21-23). They will return to the land and rejoin other Israelites. But his message is proclaimed with no uncertain sound, as with passionate forthrightness he attacks the social evils of his day. Political discontent and religious heresy take their start among industrial and manufacturing centres, but the first springs of the social revolt are nearly always found among rural populations. northeast of Bet Guvrin. He would not be a crooked judge but impartial. Furthermore, the leaders abhor justice and pervert all equity, bringing about bloodshed, iniquity and corruption and bribery (3:9-11).  However, Amos' ministry may have been over by the time Micah's began. Vol. 1-3, 5), and courage his ministry (cf. In view of previous revelation about Israel's continuing discipline by God until her Redeemer appeared (4:10), this verse seems to be a reference to the second coming of Messiah, not His first coming. Bethlehem of Judah was, of course, the hometown of David (1 Sam. Each of these messages gives evidence of containing other messages that Micah evidently preached and then compiled into the form in which we have them in this book. The reason for this view is its lack of apparent coherencein their estimation. Carol Stream, Ill.: Tyndale House Publishers, 2017. ", "The prophecy against Samaria (1:2-7) found its fulfillment in 721 B.C., and this one, against Judah, in 701 B.C. As in all the prophetical books, the standard by which God measured His people was the Mosaic Covenant. Riyadh is located in the southern Najd region. 18:3-27). An Old Testament Theology. 146:9). ; J. Jeremias, in: pjb, 29 (1933), 4253; em, 4 (1962), 741f. Micah 1:1 identifies his work as occurring in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah. (Jotham and Hezekiah were good kings, but Ahaz was very wicked.). Others identify extremely complex and sophisticated structures. Sins of the false prophets and the greedy 2:6-11, D. A prediction of future regathering and leadership 2:12-13, III. His millennial reign will continue until the destruction of the present heavens and earth. The book of Micah often moves to a new thought by using the word hear: The following is a suggested outline of the book of Micah: Chapter 1:Judgment is announced against Israel and Judah. 15:11; Ps. Micah stated in his introduction to the book that he prophesied during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah in Judah, failing to mention the simultaneous string of dishonorable kings that closed out the northern kingdom of Israel.